Cleaning validation Potential residues

The Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient Industry involves (in general) the manufacture of
Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients by both chemical and physical means through a
series of multiple step processes. Plants or individual pieces of equipment, including
ancillary equipment, may be used in multi-product manufacture or dedicated to
individual products.
The result of inadequate cleaning procedures is that any of a number of contaminants
may be present in the next batch manufactured on the equipment such as:
1. Precursors to the Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient
2. By-products and/or degradation products of the Active Pharmaceutical
3. The previous product
4. Solvents and other materials employed during the manufacturing process.
5. Micro-organisms
This is particularly the case where microbial growth may be sustained by the
6. Cleaning agents themselves and lubricants

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