Cleaning procedures

Written cleaning procedures for each piece of equipment and process1 must be
prepared. It is vital that the equipment design is evaluated in detail in
conjunction with the product residues to be removed, the available cleaning
agents and cleaning techniques when determining the optimum cleaning
procedure for the equipment.
Cleaning procedures should be sufficiently detailed to remove the possibility of
any inconsistencies during the cleaning process.
A. Equipment parameters to be evaluated
· Identification of the equipment to be cleaned
· Difficult to clean areas
· Property of materials
· Ease of disassembly
· Fixed or not
· Etc.
B. Residues to be cleaned
· Cleaning limits
· Solubility's of the residues
· Length of campaigns
· Etc.
C. Cleaning agent parameters to be evaluated
· Preferably materials that are normally used in the process
· Detergents available (as a general guide, minimize use of detergents unless
absolutely required)
· Solubility properties
· Environmental considerations.
· Health and safety considerations
· Etc.
D. Cleaning techniques to be evaluated
· Manual cleaning
· CIP (Clean-in place)
· COP (clean-out-of-place)
· Semi automatic
· Automatic
· Time considerations
· Number of cleaning cycles
· Etc.
E. Other requirements
Procedures must be determined to be operator independent i.e. rugged and
reproducible, during the validation studies.
The Cleaning documentation should include the following items in order to ensure that
it can be followed reproducibly and maintained subsequent to Validation.
· Detailed definition of levels of cleaning to be performed.
· Detailed description of cleaning methods.
· The necessity to inspect and verify equipment cleanliness prior to manufacture of
next batch should be stated in the SOP and recorded on the batch record.
· The SOP should detail where verification of cycle parameters (if automated) and
checklists (for complex manual procedures) is necessary.
· Where microbial contamination may be an issue, consideration should be given to
the integrity of the vessel prior to manufacture.
Written cleaning procedures may also include additional items not specified above,
these would include, as an example, the steps needed to protect the equipment from
contamination after cleaning.

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